Book Reviews

Evolutionary Psychology by David Buss -Book Notes, Summary, and Review

18. Evolutionary Psychology - David Buss

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Rating: 5/10

Date of reading: 12th of May – 1st of June, 2018

Description: How the human brain evolved over hundreds of thousands of years to become what it is today. And it’s a miracle how our brain thinks we still live in the era of sabertooth cats and mammoths and, therefore, acts, thinks, and behaves like the treat of those is real. Read this to understand our brains and why it operates the way it does in the world today.


My notes:


1. The Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary Psychology


This “argument from ignorance,” or as Dawkins (1982) calls it, “the argument from personal incredulity,” ( :14)

“there, he speculated that many cherished human phenomena, such as culture, religion, ethics, even aesthetics, would ultimately be explained by the new synthesis. These assertions only contradicted the dominant theories in the social sciences. Culture, learning, socialization-, rationality, and consciousness, not evolutionary biology, were presumed by most social scientists to explain the uniqueness of humans.” ( :22)

“decade after Watson’s major work, a young Harvard graduate student named B. F. Skinner needed a new brand of environmentalism called radical behaviorism and a principle of preconditioning. According to this principle, the reinforcing consequences of behavior were the local causes of subsequent behavior. Behavior followed by reinforcement would be repeated in the future. Behavior not followed by reinforcement (or followed by punishment) would not be repeated in the future. All behavior, except random behavior, could be explained by the “connected”of reinforcement.” ( :32)

“. Perhaps the most influential was Margaret Mead,who purported to have disc ered cultures in which the “sex roles” were totally reversed and sexual jealousy entirely abs” ( :33)

“. Perhaps the most influential was Margaret Mead,who purported to have disc ered cultures in which the “sex roles” were totally reversed and sexual jealousy entirely abs Mead depicted island paradises inhabited by peaceful peoples who celebrated shared sexua and free love and did not compete,rape,fight,or murd” ( :33)

“Derek Freeman (1983), for example, found that the Samoan islanders whom Mead had depi in such utopian terms were intensely competitive and had murder and rape rates higher t those in the United State” ( :33)

“generate behavior as output. The idea that humans might come predisposed or specially equipped to process some ds of information and not others set the stage for the emergence of evolutionary psycho” ( :38)


2. The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology


“t, it cannot be tested because specific empirical predictions do not follow from its major mise. Wh” ( :42)

“t, it cannot be tested because specific empirical predictions do not follow from its major mise. Whatever exists does so simply because the Supreme Being has created it. Second, ationism has not guided researchers to any new scientific discoveries. Third, creationism not proved useful as a scientific explanation for already discovered organic mechanisms.” ( :42)

“rs, 1985). The male pipefish seahorse receives the eggs from the female and then carries th around in his kangaroo-like pouch. These females compete aggressively with each other for “best” males, and males in turn are choosy about who they mate with. This so-called “sexreversed” species supports Trivers’s theory, showing that it is not “maleness” or “femalen itself that caus” ( :47)

“Psychologist Devendra Singh has proposed one such feature: the ratio of the wais the hips, or WHR (Singh, 1993). A low WHR, indicating that the waist is smaller in circ ference than the hips, is linked with fertility for two reasons. First, women in fertility c ics with low WHRs get pregnant sooner than women with higher WHRs. Second, wo with higher WHRs show a higher incidence of heart disease and endocrinological proble both of which are linked with lower fertility. So Singh proposed that men will prefer wo with low WHRs and that a desire evolved in men to home in on this powerful physical to women’s fertilit” ( :51)

“henomenon occurs. Two conclusions about this “bottom-up”strategy of generating and testing hypotheses be drawn. First, it is perfectly legitimate for scientists to observe phenomena and subseque formulate hypotheses about their origins and functions. In astronomy, for example, the find of the expanding universe was observed first, followed by theories that attempted to explai The bottom-up strategy provides a nice complement to the “top-” ( :51)

“mans also have a nature—qualities that define us as a unique species—and all chological theories imply its existence. For Sigmund Freud, human nature consisted of ory of radical behaviorism, assume that humans have a nature—in this case, consisting of w highly general learning mechanisms.” ( :52)

“the eye is not an all-purpose seeing device. It is designed to process only row subsets of information—waves within a particular range of frequency, edges, motion, so on—from among the much larger domain of potential information.” ( :54)

“magine giving” ( :56)

“m, the greater the number of response options there will be. Consider a carpenter’s toolbox. The carpenter gains flexibility not by having one “highly eral tool” that can be used to cut, poke, saw, screw, twist, wrench, plane, balance, and ham- . Instead, th” ( :58)

“data sources have limitations. The fossil record is fragmentary and has large gaps. With temporary hunter-gatherers, we do not know the degree to which current practices are taminated by modern influences. In self-reports, people may lie or fail to know the truth. h observational reports, many important domains of behavior are hidden from prying s; those that are not may be distorted due to observer bias. Laboratory experiments are n contrived and artificial, rendering their generalizability to real-world contexts stionable. Life data from public records, although seemingly objective, can also be ject to systematic biases. E” ( :70)


3. Combating the Hostile Forces of Nature: Human Survival Problems


“ave for avoiding danger. Fear is a vital evolutionary legacy that leads an organism to avoid threat,and has obvious surv value. It is an emotion produced by the perception of present or impending danger and is nor in appropriate situations. Without fear few would survive long under natural conditions. girds our loins for rapid action in the face of danger and alerts us to perform well under stres helps us fight the enemy, drive carefully, parachute” ( :95)

“e inherited effects of real dangers . . . ing ancient savage time?” (Darwin, 1877, pp. 285-294). Humans are far more likely to deve fears of dangers that were present in the ancestral environment than of dangers in the current e ronment. Snakes, for example, are hardly a problem in large urban cities, but automobiles Fears of cars,guns,electrical outlets,and cigarettes are virtually unheard of,since these are ev tionarily novel hazards—too recent for selection to have fashioned specific fears. The fact more city dwellers go to psychiatrists with fears of snakes and strangers tha” ( :97)

“rabbits are more likely to die (Kluger,1990). Early in the twentieth century, a physician named Julius Wagner-Jauregg observed that hilis was rarely seen in places where malaria was common (Nesse & Williams, 1994). At time,syphilis killed 99 percent of those who were infected. Wagner-Jauregg intentionally ined syphilis patients with malaria, which produces a fever, and found that 30 percent of those ents survived—a huge inc” ( :102)

“ed, “it seems likely that males suffer higher mortality than do females because in” ( :104)


4. Men’s Long-Term Mating Strategies


“Another benefit of marriage is an increase in the quality of the woman a man woul able to attract. Men who are willing to promise long-term resources, protection, and investm in children are appealing to women, so men who are willing to commit to the long term ha wider range of women from which to choo” ( :111)

“attracting a mate, (2) increased ability to attract a more desirable mate, (3) increased pater certainty, (4) increased survival of his children, (5) increased reproductive success of child” ( :111)

“ot yet borne her first child. Nigerian, Indonesian, Iranian, and Indian men express similar preferences. Without ception, in every one of the thirty-seve” ( :113)

“r ancestors had access to two types of observable evidence of a woman’s reproductive ue: (1) features of physical appearance, such as full lips, clear skin, smooth skin, clear eyes, rous hair,good muscle tone,and body fat distribution; and (2) features of behavior,such as a” ( :118)

“ndards of Beauty Are Consistent across Cultures. he constituents of beauty are neiarbitrary nor culture bound. When psychologist Michael C” ( :120)

“cases, women selected a figure that was slimmer than average. When men were asked to se which female figure they preferred, however, they selected the figure of exactly average b size. So U.S. women think that men want them to be thinner than is in fact the case. A stud 7,434 individuals from twenty-six cultures in ten world regions found the same pattern— consisten” ( :121)

“ms with young, attractive, nubile women had sex with them frequently (Betzig, 1992). The Moroccan emperor Moulay Ismail the odthirsty, for example, acknowledged siring 888 children. His harem included 500 women. when a woman reached the age of thirty,she was banished from” ( :132)

“adison Avenue is somees charged with advancing a single arbitrary standard of beauty that everyone else must live o. This accusation is at least partially false. The standards of beauty, as we have seen, are not trary but rather embody reliable cues to fertility and reproductive value. A” ( :134)

“one study, after groups of men looked at photographs of either highly attractive men or women of average attractiveness, they were asked to evaluate their commitment to r current romantic partners (Kenrick et al., 1994). The men who had viewed pictures of active women thereafter judged their actual partners to be less attractive than did the men who viewed pictures of women who were average in attractiveness. They also rated themselves as committed to,less satisfied with,less serious about,and less close to their actual partners. P” ( :134)

“ozen women considered attractive by today’s measure. The presence of a relative abundance ttractive women, however, might reasonably induce a man t would decrease his commitment to his existing mate. Consider modern times. We carry with us the same evaluative mechanisms that evolved in ient times. Now,however,these mechanisms are artificially activated by the dozens of attracwomen we witness daily in our advertisement-saturated culture, in magazines, on billrds, on TV, and in movies. These images do not represent real women in our actual soc” ( :134)

“They discovered that when given a low budget and asked to allocate their mating dollars ac a number of mate attributes, men allocated a relatively large proportion of their budget to ph cal attractiveness and women allocated a relatively large proportion of their budget to resource precisely in line with the sex differences found in all the other studies of mate preferenc” ( :137)

“The varying budgets—low, medium, and high—are likely to show some parallels to i vidual differences in “mate value.” Those low in mate value have less choice, so they wan ensure adequate levels on the necessities of mating—for men, some minimum level of att tiveness; for women,some minimum level of resources and status. As mate value increases,p ple can afford to be choosier on a wider array of characterist” ( :137)

“about t age when they place personal advertisements for mates (Pawlowski & Dunbar, 1999b). In s when it comes to attracting the opposi” ( :141)


5. Women’s Long-Term Mating Strategies


“men, like weaverbirds, also prefer males with “nests” of various kinds.” ( :148)

“woman who preferred to mate with a relie man who was willing to commit to her would have had children who survived, thrived, and ltiplied. Over thousands of generations, a preference for men who showed signs of being ing and able to commit evolved in women, just as preferences for mates with adequate nests lved in weaverbirds. This preference solved key reproduction problems, just as food preferes solved key survival problems.” ( :148)

“ater mobility. ng with differences in size and mobility comes a difference in quantity. Men produce lions of sperm, which are replenished at a rate of roughly 12 million per hour. Women, o” ( :148)

“). The male Mormon cricket produces a l spermatophore that is loaded with nutrients. Females compete with each other for access to high-investing males holding the largest spermatophore” ( :149)

“). The male Mormon cricket produces a l spermatophore that is loaded with nutrients. Females compete with each other for access to high-investing males holding the largest spermatophores. Among these so-called sexreversed species, males are more discriminating than females about mati” ( :149)

“nogamy), placed more value than men on good financ” ( :154)

“0 study of the mate preferences of mail-order brides from Colombia, the Philippines, and Ru found that these women sought husbands who had status and ambition—two key correlate resource acquisitio” ( :155)

“nual salaries, and anticipate greater salaries and promotions than those failed to work ha” ( :159)

“terestingly, women can acately estimate a man’s shoulder-to-hip ratio merely from the sound of his voice (Hughes, rison,& Gallup,2009).” ( :162)

“e production of high levels of testosterone is known to comproe the human immune system. According to Johnston’s argument, only males who are quite lthy can “afford” to produce high levels of testosterone during their development. Less lthy males must suppress testosterone production,lest they compromise their already weaker mune systems. As a result, healthy males end up producing more testosterone and developing re rugged masculine-looking faces. If” ( :164)

“en together,these studies point to the importance of paternal qualities—a man’s interest and willingness to invest in,children—as critical to women’s selection of a long-term mate.” ( :168)

“In long-term mating, women prefer men who produce humor, whereas men prefer women are receptive to their hum” ( :169)

“). A study of 288 Jordanians found that both women men with high socioeconomic status place more, not less, value on the mate characteristic having a college graduate degree and being ambitious-industrio” ( :171)

“. Two studies found that women judged a man to be more attractive whe was surrounded by women compared to when he was standing alo” ( :171)

“interactions in a speed dating setting,and found that the mate copying effect only occurred if woman in the videotape showed interest in the man (Place et al., 2010). Presumably, if she not show interest in the man, women interpret this as evidence that he is lower in mate va Taken together, these studies reveal that women use social information, in this case a man b” ( :171)

“short, when mating motives are “primed” by exposure to ng attractive women,a cascade of psychological shifts occurs in men such that they value and lay precisely what women want and hence what men need to succeed in mate competition.” ( :176)


6. Short-Term Sexual Strategies


“ng “Hi, I’ve b noticing you around town lately,and I find you very att tive. Would you have sex with me?” How would respond? If you are like 100 percent of the women in study, you would give an emphatic no. You would offended, insulted, or just plain puzzled by the requ But if you are like the men in that study, the odds are g that you would say yes—as did 75 percent of those (Clarke & Hatfield, 19″ ( :181)

“th. The hig monogamous gorilla females averaged only one male sex partner per birth. Human females w estimated to have 1.1 male sex partners per birth, or nearly 10 percent more sex partners t gorillas. In contrast, baboon females had eight male sex partners per birth; bonobo chimp males had nine male sex partners per birth; and common chimpanzee females (Pan troglody had thirteen male sex partners per birt” ( :185)

“he results from a massive cross-cultural study shown in Figure 1(Schmitt et al.,2003). In every culture in every region of the world,a subtially larger percentage of men than women desire more than one sex partner over the next nth. Norwegian culture provides an especially interesting test case for these sex differences, e it is a culture with a high degree of gender equality (Kennair et al.,2009). Norwegianwomen me psychologists argue that increased gender equality should result in a reduction or eliminaof sex differences (Eagly & Wo” ( :186)

“t-term mating strate an emotional shift right after sexual intercourse (Haselton & Buss, 2001). Men with more partners experienced a sharp decline in how sexually attractive they found their partner im” ( :189)

“owed this decline.” ( :190)

“: “There seems to be no question but that the human male would be promiscuous in choice of sexual partners throughout the whole of his life if there were no social restrictions. human female is much less interested in a variety of partne” ( :193)

“Women discharge roughly 35 percent of sperm within thirty minutes of the time of ins ination, averaged across all instances of intercourse. If the woman has an orgasm, however, retains 70 percent of the sperm, ejecting only 30 perce” ( :195)

“al. One pertains to sexual sources. Women pursuing short-term mating view as highly beneficial having a sexual par who is willing to experiment sexually .51), experiencing orgasms with the sexual par (r ( .47),and experiencing great sexual pleasure because the partner was physically attrac ( .39 ” ( :203)

“her Absence and Stepfather Presence. The absence of a father w” ( :204)

“l study of sex ratio and sexual strategies, involving 14,059 individual forty-eight nations,people in cultures with a surplus of wome” ( :205)

“aracteristics also predict mating strategy. A study of 13,243 individuals from y-six nations found that the traits of extraversion,low levels of” ( :206)


7. Problems of Parenting


“Imagi e a society in which all men and women recei exactly the same income. Every able-bodied adult wor All decisions were made communally by both sexes,an children were raised collectively by the group. How wo people react when actually faced with this social arran ment? Such an experiment was in fact conducted in Is among those living in a kibbutz. Two anthropologist Joseph Shepher and Lionel Tiger—studied three generat living in a kibbutz,a total of 34,040 people. In their cla 1975 book Women in the Kibbutz,Shepher and Tiger tell they found,astonishingly,that the division of labor by ge was actually greater in the kibbutz than in the rest of Is” ( :211)

“Imagi e a society in which all men and women recei exactly the same income. Every able-bodied adult wor All decisions were made communally by both sexes,an children were raised collectively by the group. How wo people react when actually faced with this social arran ment? Such an experiment was in fact conducted in Is among those living in a kibbutz. Two anthropologist Joseph Shepher and Lionel Tiger—studied three generat living in a kibbutz,a total of 34,040 people. In their cla 1975 book Women in the Kibbutz,Shepher and Tiger tell they found,astonishingly,that the division of labor by ge was actually greater in the kibbutz than in the rest of Is (Tiger,1996). Most striking,however,were the strong p” ( :211)

“men generally cannot increase reproductive outdirectly by mating with a variety of men. In summary, because the mating opportunity costs arental care will generally be hi” ( :214)

“According to this hypothesis,male parental care should be rare when the opportunity c of missed matings for males are hig” ( :215)

“). Therefore, we can predict that men will be more likely to in in children in contexts in which there is a surplus of men but will be more negligent of child when there is a surplus of wome” ( :215)

“From your perspective, however, you are twice as valuable as your sibling:You have percent of your genes, whereas your sibling only has 50 percent of your genes (on avera Therefore, your mother’s ideal allocation would benefit you by the four units that you rec plus only two of the units that your sibling receives (since you benefit by only 50 percen whatever your sibling receives),for a total of six units benefit. If you manage to get all the fo however, you benefit by seven units (four for the first item plus three for the second). Theref from your perspective, the ideal allocation would be for you to get all the food and your sib” ( :237)


8. Problems of Kinship


“n. Altruism,as used here,is defined by two conditi (1) incurring a cost to the self to (2) provide a benefit to the other pers” ( :245)

“u could jump in the water to save them, but you would pay h your own life. According to Hamilton’s rule, selection will favor decision rules that, on rage, result in your jumping into the water to save three of your brothers, but not one. You uld be predicted not to sacrifice your own life for just one brother, because that would vioHamilton’s rule. Using the logic of Hamilton’s rule, evolved decision rules should lead to sacrifice your own life for five nieces or nephews, but you would have to save nine first sins before you would sacrifice your own life.” ( :246)

“These and other results (Salmon, 1999) lend some support to Sulloway’s theory that b outside of the family. Interestingly,middle-born chi” ( :247)

“parents strive to in equally in their children, middle-borns end up on the sh” ( :247)

“. There is an old joke that illustrates this conflict. A son goes off to coll and, after three months, writes a letter home pleading for more mon “Dear Dad:No mon,no fun,your son In response,the father writes bac “Dear Son:Too bad,so sad,your Dad” ( :269)


9. Cooperative Alliances


“ilkinson discovered that the “friends” ded to regurgitate blood more often when their friends were in dire need and close to starva- (e.g., thirteen hours from death) than when they were in mild need (e.g., two days from th). He also found that the starved bats who received help from their friends were more likely ive blood to those who had helped them in their time of need. In sum, vampire bats show all signs of having evolved reciprocal altruistic adaptations.” ( :280)

“Unfortunately, humans do not seem to be very good at solving logical problems. Ima that in one room are a few archeologists, biologists, and chess players (Pinker, 1997, p. 3 None of the archeologists are biologists,but all of the biologists are chess players. What foll from this knowledge? More than 50 percent of college students surveyed conclude from this none of the archeologists are chess players—clearly an invalid inference becaus” ( :283)

“avoid so ial groups in which one’s unique attributes are not valued or in which one’s que attributes are easily provided by others; or drive off rivals who offer benefits that you alone formerly provided.” ( :292)

“We have medical knowledge that has eliminated or reduced m sources of disease and illness. We live in an environment that is in many ways safer and m stable than that inhabited by our ancestors. Paradoxically, therefore, we suffer from a rela scarcity of critical events that would allow us to accurately assess those who are deeply enga in our welfare and discriminate them from our fair-weather friends. It is possible that the lon ness and sense of alienation that many feel in modern living—a lack of a feeling of deep so connectedness despite the presence of many warm and friendly interactions—mig” ( :293)


10. Aggression and Warfare


“t, there is solid evidence that men who are victimized by aggres from other males during middle school and high school, which typically results in a loss of tus, have significantly fewer sex partners by the time they reach colle” ( :317)

“is difficult to see why any sane organism, selected to survive and genetiy propagate, should seek so actively to create conditions of such remarkable personal cost danger” (1″ ( :322)

“Men who take more risks—as leaders sometimes do when they take their men into tle—get a proportionately larger share of the spoils of war. Similarly, men whose con bution to the success of the battle is larger get a proportionately larger sh” ( :323)

“s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that unokais have more extramarital affairs (Chagnon, 1983). In sum, if having killed is viewed as a reas able proxy for having participated and contributed importantly to coalitional warfare, evidence supports the hypothesis that sexu” ( :327)

“m: The sex difference is fo in every culture across the globe for which homicide statistics are availab” ( :329)

“ns. An evolutionary spective leads to the prediction that warfare will be practiced primarily by men,with the prim reproductive benefit being increased sexual access to wom” ( :333)


11. Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance


“routinely collected women in harems, choosing the young, the fertile, and the attive. The Moroccan emperor Moulay Ismai” ( :342)

“n. The emperor Huang-ti was sai have had intercourse with 1,200 women. The deposed emperor Fei-ti kept six palaces stoc with more than 10,000 women. Great princes were restricted to hundreds of women, great g erals had thirty or more, upper-class men housed six to twelve, and middle-class men kept o three or fou” ( :343)

“t of the high-dominant women took the leadership role in the same-sex pairs. When highinant men were paired with low-dominant women, however, 90 percent of the men became ders. The most startling result occurred when the woman was high and the man low in domnce. Under the” ( :346)

“iding who would be the leader. When he analyzed these tapes, he made a tling finding:The h” ( :346)

“iding who would be the leader. When he analyzed these tapes, he made a tling finding:The high-dominant women were appointingtheir low-dominant partners to the dership position. In fact, the hi” ( :346)

“omen tend to experience more envy of rivals who are more sically attractive than they are, whereas men tend to experience more envy of rivals who e more sexual experience and more attractive mates (” ( :352)

“Indicators of Dominance. In summarizing this literature,Argyle 94) concluded that dominant individuals tend to stand at full height, often facing the group, h hands on hips and an expanded chest; they gaze a lot, looking at others while talking; they not smile much; they touc” ( :352)

“cially dominant men, but not to socially dominant women aner, DeWall, & Gailliot, 2008). The behaviors of low-ranking or submissive individuals are cally the opposite:Their body posture is often bent rather than straight; they smile a lot; they ak softly, listen while the other is speaking, and give many deferential head nods; they speak than those who are higher in status; they don’t interrupt others who are” ( :352)

“been correlated with a variety of dominating behaviors am both prisoners and nonprisoners. High T levels are al” ( :355)

“ith a diverse array of re lious and antisocial acts,especially among young males (Mazur,2005).” ( :355)

“ernatively, the elevated T levels of winners may function to elevate self-confidence, fostering assumption of a higher-status role, perhaps even fostering an increase in sexual access to men.” ( :356)

“es—T and cortisol, ch has been called “the stress hormone”) (Mehta & Josephs, 2010). T was most strongly ed with dominance among men who also had low cor” ( :356)

“ceiving down is not “playing dumb” or pretending to be less than you are. ead, it involves an actual reduction in self-confidence to facilitate acting in a submissive, ordinate manner.” ( :360)


12. Conflict Between the Sexes


“a superma chain implemented a “superior tomer service” program—store ployees were instructed to smile customers and make eye contact them. The program backfired whe number of female employees filed ual harassment charges against the permarket. Apparently, their frien actions caused some of the male customers to interpret their behavior as signaling sexual in est,leading to sexual comments,overt sexual come-ons,and even stalk” ( :369)


13. Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology


“hat matters in the eyes of selection is not truth,validity, ogical consistency,but simply what works in the currency of reproductive success.” ( :406)

“Evolutionary hypotheses have also been advanced for other moral emotions such contempt (evoked with moral violations of disrespect, duty, or hierarchy), sympathy (mov people to help others who are suffering), gratitude (motivating people to act more prosoci to one’s benefactors),and many othe” ( :417)

“cording to Baron-Cohen (2005), s” ( :420)

“ality psychology might be the broadest and the most encompassing branch of psychol- . Historically, all “grand” theories of personality have hypotheses about the contents of nature at their core, such as motives for sex and aggression (Sigmund Freud), self-realization (Abraham Maslow), striving for superiority (Adler), o” ( :422)

“example, a woman might be better off securing all of the urces of a lower-status monogamous man rather than settling for a fraction of the resources high-status polygynous man.” ( :424)

for example, argues that firstborns occupy a niche characterized by a strong identification with parents and other existing authority figures. Laterns, in contrast, have less to gain from authority identification, and more to gain by overwing the existing order. A” ( :424)

“birth order influences niche specialization. er-borns develop a different personality marked by greater rebelliousness, lower levels of conscientiousness, and higher levels of openness to new experiences (” ( :424)

“expected to increase in populations marked” ( :426)

” Fashion models and actress for example, are often highly physically attractive. Extremely attractive women are a fraction of the population, yet images of these women are presented at a misleadingly frequent” ( :429)

“y that may, unfortunately, result in the abuse or neglect of an unrelated child. The implications of evolutionizing clinical psychology are profound (Brune, 2008; Guire & Troisi, 1998; Stevens & Price, 2000). Properly understanding the design of some-” (: 430)

“take your car to a mechanic—you know how to drive it, but the mechanic knows more about precisely how it was designed and how its mechanisms are meant to function. An evolutionary perspective also gives guidance about when to intervene” ( :431)

“Men historically have produced more art, music, and literature than women across a wide v ety of cultures” ( :435)


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