Book Reviews

The Hero With A Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell -Book Notes, Summary, and Review

12. The Hero With A Thousand Faces - Joseph Campbell

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Rating: 8/10

Date of reading: 6th – 19th of March, 2018

Description: Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it’s the guy who was sitting in his shed for 5 years and read all mythology stories ever written by humans. Oh, and he found 14 points which all the mythological stories share together.  And guess what? George Lucas found this book and created the Star Wars story arc according to these points. Afterward, all great movies started using “The Hero’s Journey” to create compelling stories which we will remember for years to come (think Frodo, Harry Potter, Luke Skywalker, Neo, etc.)

My notes:

PREFACE 

“As we are told in the Vedas: “Truth is one, the sages speak of it by many names.”” ( :12)

“When the ruler was ethical and whole, the culture was also.” ( :13)

“monomyth, a word he identifies as one coined by James Joyce, he puts forth the ancient idea—that the mysterious energy for inspirations, revelations, and actions in heroic stories worldwide is also universally found in human beings.” ( :13)

“seek the meridians where “what is purely spirit” and “what is purely human” meet and create a third edition of a finer selfhood.” ( :14)

“When the illumined feather floats down from the sky, one of the wisest of the birds reveals that this feather is in fact a precognition —a visionary glimpse of the Simorgh, the Great One. Oh, how the birds are buoyed up then. The birds are of many different kinds: short-beaked, long-billed, fancy-plumed, plain-colored, enormous, and tiny. But, regardless of size, shape, or hue, the birds who have witnessed this sudden and evanescent sight of the lighted feather band together.” ( :14)

“There is a “great price” to be paid to live in such an attitude of wholeness, for it means one must abandon the old unconscious way of life, including, for the fool, some of one’s former self-indulgent foolishnesses.” ( :15)

“They maintain that they will try anything and look anywhere for the treasure, as long as the ways and means to do so avoid all difficulty, yet also satisfy their every appetite. In seeking to avoid all peril, discomfort, and “all love that might ever 11 cause us heartache, they thus find and bring to themselves only the empty assets of self-delusion and an aversion to real life.” ( :15)

“The attrition rate continues, until there are only thirty birds left to continue this harsh flight that they all had begun with such earnest hearts —all in quest for the essence of Truth and Wholeness in life —and, beyond that, for that which can light the dark again.” ( :15)

“the thirty birds realize that their perseverance, sacrifice, and faithfulness to the path —is the lighted feather, that this same illumined feather lives in each one’s determination, each one’s fitful activity toward the divine.” ( :15)

“At the end of the story, a pun is revealed. It is that Si-Morgh means thirty birds. The number thirty is considered that which makes up a full cycle, as in thirty days to the month, during which the moon moves from a darkened to a lit crescent, to full open, to ultimate maturity, and thence continues on. The point is that the cycle of seeing, seeking, falling, dying, being reborn into new sight, has now been completed.” ( :15)

“The definitive guidance is this: Whosoever desires to explore The Way — Let them set out—for what more is there to say?” ( :15)

“It said, “Why not?” It said, “Once more.”” ( :16)

“If courage and bravery are the muscles of the spiritual drive that help a person to become whole, then stories are the bones.” ( :16)

“There was a serious piece of advice given by the very old people in our family. It was that every child ought to know twelve complete stories before that child was twelve years old.” ( :17)

“No matter how much “much” a person might otherwise possess, they were seen as poor—and worse, as imperiled—if they did not know stories they could turn to for advice, throughout and till the very end of life.” ( :17)

“One group of old women told me that there in the city, the young girls no longer knew the love stories traditionally used to draw the interest of suitors. Though the lovely young girls’ physical beauty surely would attract them, how would any suitor determine whether a girl knew anything about deep life if she did not know the stories about all the beauties and dead ends of life”?” ( :18)

“This is where the women were to wash their family’s ctothes evermore. There was no river in the projects. No river: no gathering place. No gathering place: no stories.” ( :18)

“It appears that “culture at edge of utter corruption” and “world at the edge of utter destruction” are two of the oldest themes to be found in stories of the human race.” ( :23)

“the morning, do not rush off to work, but take down your musical instrument and play it. Then test your work in the same way. If there is no music in it, then set it aside, and go find what has music in it again.” ( :24)

“If the world has a soul, then story informs and heals and spiritually grows the cultures, and the peoples within those cultures, through its universal cache of idioms and images. In ancient Hebraic, this concept is known as tikkun olam; meaning repair of the world soul.” ( :24)

“Tikkun olam is giving one’s attention and resources to repair that part of the world that is right before you, precisely within your spiritual, psychological, and physical reach—according to soul’s sight, not ego’s alone.” ( :24)

“heroic stories about bad roads, poor judgments, dark nights, dreadful starts, mysterious ghosts, terrible ambushes, great strengths, mercies, and compassions.” ( :24)

“By their acts ye shall know them.” ( :24)

“In many ways, we can see the evidences that the inner life strengthens the outer life, and vice versa. And it is stories that can unite these two precious worlds —one mundane, the other mythic.” ( :24)

“Most persons who have been through hell of various kindswar, massacre, assault, torture, profound sorrows, will tell that, even though they still fee! sick with the weight of it all, and perhaps also ill with regrets of one kind or another—they are nevertheless learning how to swim strong to reach the able raft of the soul.” ( :25)

“I am more on the side of those who must swim the torrents while crying out for help. In all, they are striving hard not to drown before they can reach the safety of the souPs arm” ( :25)

“”Nothing contributes so much to tranquilizing the mind as a steady purpose—a point on which the sou! may fix its intellectual eye.”” ( :26)

“to come from out of nowhere, more often too, in mythos, the answers come only from a hard labor that is kept to day after day.” ( :26)

“Likewise, in mythos and tales, if one is looking for wood, one must go to the forest. If one is looking for life, one must go to the eternal life-giver—and/or the eternal death-dealer—in order to find the needed understandings to wrest free the answer to the riddle, all in order to answer the question most dear to one’s soul—the one used to motivate and locomote true consciousness.” ( :26)

“Through these perils and more, he learns the way home is mazed with hazards that force him to take chances and to make choices —and he learns to not fall asleep. All that he endures is also presented to human beings in the same way during times of duress. One either forgets one’s spiritual commitment and is thereby blown farther from true home, or else one becomes, in those moments, more determined to fulfill the question, to become more expansive, more docile, more fierce — whatever is required—than one had been just moments before.” ( :27)

“Demeter does so with style. She sees that she is at a dead end and must give up trying to make a Demophoon, a mortal child, into an immortal, so as to replace her own lost immortal child. That desire to “replace” does not fulfill the soulful need which guides her seeking—which is not to replace, but to find.” ( :27)

“Poor Oedipus finds his tragic answers to the question, What will be lost if one does not overturn the projections and pronouncements of others? When he was born, the Oracle claimed he would be doomed to kill his father and marry his mother. His parents—attempting to evade the curse for themselves, but without being willing to risk confrontation or counterbalance—leave him to die in the woods.” ( :27)

“At the end of a life that has meaning, the point is not that one is perfected, but that one will still carry a view of self and the world that is divine—and not just some kind of lazy drift.” ( :28)

“He used a language that was easily understood by those he was speaking to. He kept to all these simple ways of being, even though he lived in a world that sometimes confuses the messenger with the living message.” ( :28)

“I have heard that some thought Campbell sometimes did not write in a sufficiently high scholarly form. It is true that he concerned himself with the activities of spirit and soul, mythos and fairytales, religious exegesis—the invisible arms that hold up the world of human spirit. It is true that he pursued these with all the gusto of a child let out of school, and running toward the open sea.” ( :28)

“Some were said to be shocked at his late-in-life interest in and attendance at a Grateful Dead concert, then one of the preeminent rock groups of his time. All I could think was, “jAndele! Yes, go on!” The Grateful Dead” ( :29)

“Compelling experiences add to the development of the hero and heroine.” ( :29)

“Recall that an archetype is a representation of the Irrepresentable.” ( :30)

“But ultimately, examining these and other figures in mythic tales of many kinds—isn’t it odd?—the more one studies and learns, the more one sees the mythic journey as not one belonging to any gender per se, regardless of the gender of the heroes and heroines or the antagonists presented in tales.” ( :30)

“Kipping stories from their roots and contexts won’t pass muster. Just telling a good story won’t do it. This is because the energy-source of the story is not the story itself. The energy of mythos comes from something underlying the story. What lies behind the story is the same as the energy-source that makes a car go. It is not the chassis, no matter how classy or shapely it might be. The primary force that makes the car go is not even in the engine.” ( :31)

“Once could say it is a phenomenon precisely related to the idea of the monomyth that Campbell defines; something larger than life infuses the human—if they can break themselves open and accept it.” ( :31)

“Like many of her generation, she loves to read, but will not sit still for writings that are overly ornamented with obscure references not explained clearly, or that hold no “relationship” to her mind and to what she values most in life. As a child, she once called a book she was assigned to read in Lit class “a dust sandwich.”” ( :31)

“He points to their special interest in the plausible call that rises within human beings —the call that causes individuals who have been living highly externalized lives to stop, take notice, and redirect themselves to a higher self—or else suffer becoming more and more lackluster and world-weary.” ( :32)

“They remember that they are remembering. They tell what has been since the beginning of time. As Campbell has put it many times: the Mythic is the one deed done by many, many people.” ( :33)

“This is the main point, it seems to me, for anyone who has the calling of healer, storyteller, poet, artist, leader—as Walt Whitman counseled, “to embrace all our contradictions”;” ( :34)

“Campbell himself dwelt free by nourishing whatever mythos he gathered into his heart and mind, and offering the rendering of them to others— through teaching and dancing and especially through “being alive with” others. He did not hold himself away from real life’s experiences. In fact, he emphasized that such was the way to experience the mythic—not just read or talk about it. Neither did he hold himself away from meaningful and heartfelt endeavors, which he termed “bliss.”” ( :34)

“”. . . [One] is a physical deed, as in saving the life of another. But the second kind is spiritual. It is the one who has learned or found something in the supernormal range of human spiritual life, and then came back and communicated it.”” ( :34)

“Clarissa Pinkola Estes, Ph.D. Psychoanalyst, and author of The Gift of Story and Women Who Run With the Wolves” ( :34)

PROLOGUE
The Monomyth

“The so-called rites of passage, which occupy such a prominent place in the life of a primitive society (ceremonials of birth, naming, puberty, marriage, burial, etc.),” ( :38)

“severance, whereby the mind is radically cut away from the attitudes, attachments, and life patterns of the stage being left g behind.” ( :38)

“”When a little boy of the Murngin tribe is about to be circumcised, he is told by his fathers and by the old men, ‘The Great Father Snake smells your foreskin; he is calling for it.’ The boys believe this to be literally true, and become extremely frightened. Usually they take refuge with their mother, mother’s mother, or some other favorite female relative, for they know that the men are organized to see that they are taken to the men’s ground, where the great snake is bellowing.” ( :39)

“even a pathos of inverted emphasis: the goal is not to grow old, but to remain young; not to mature away from Mother, but to cleave to her.” ( :39)

“Sigmund Freud stresses in his writings the passages and difficulties of the first half of the human cycle of life—those of our infancy and adolescence, when our sun is mounting toward its zenith. C. G. Jung, on the other hand, has emphasized the crises of the second portion —when, in order to advance, the shining sphere must submit to descend and disappear, at last, into the night-womb of the grave” ( :39)

“from the tomb of the womb to the womb of the tomb, we come: an ambiguous, enigmatical incursion into a world of solid matter that is soon to melt from us, like the substance of a dream.” ( :40)

“The Cretan fleets went out to every isle and harbor of the Mediterranean; Cretan ware was prized in Babylonia and Egypt. The bold little ships even broke through the Gates of Hercules to the open ocean, coasting then northward to take the gold of Ireland 13 and the tin of Cornwall,” ( :40)

“The Cretan fleets went out to every isle and harbor of the Mediterranean; Cretan ware was prized in Babylonia and Egypt. The bold little ships even broke through the Gates of Hercules to the open ocean, coasting then northward to take the gold of Ireland 13 and the tin of Cornwall, as well as southward, around the buige of Senegal, to remote Yorubaland and the distant marts of 14 ivory, gold, and slaves.” ( :40)

“are not to be confused with the personally modified symbolic figures that appear in nightmare and madness to the still tormented individual.” ( :43)

“But in the dream the forms are quirked by the peculiar troubles of the dreamer, whereas in myth the problems and solutions shown are directly valid for all mankind.” ( :43)

“The hero, therefore, is the man or woman who has been able to battle past his personal and local historical limitations to the generally valid, normally human forms.” ( :43)

“The hero has died as a modern man; but as eternal man—perfected unspecific, universal man—he has been reborn. His second solemn task and deed therefore (as Toynbee declares and as all the mythologies of mankind indicate) is to return then to us, transfigured, and teach the 20 lesson he has learned of life renewed.” ( :43)

“In thinking of this dream I have a distinct feeling that I did not have to go where I was at all but could have chosen a comfortable walk along paved streets. I had gone to the squalid and muddy district because I preferred adventure, and, having begun, I had to go on… .” ( :43)

“Perhaps some of us have to go through dark and devious ways before we can find the river 21 of peace or the highroad to the soul’s destination.”” ( :43)

“Daedalus simply presented her with a skein of linen thread, which the visiting hero might fix to the entrance and unwind as he went into the maze. It is, indeed, very little that we need! But lacking that, the adventure into the labyrinth is without hope.” ( :45)

“”Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” With these fateful words, Count Leo Tolstoy opened the novel of the spiritual dismemberment of his modern heroine, Anna Karenina.” ( :45)

“Thus the two are the terms of a single mythological theme and experience which includes them both and which they bound: the down-going and the up-coming (kathodos and anados), which together constitute the totality of the revelation that is life, and which the individual must know and love if he is to be purged” ( :47)

“Lik e happ y families , the myth s and the world s redeeme d are all alike .” ( :48)

“A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.” ( :48)

“A majesti c representatio n of the difficultie s of the hero-task , and of its sublim e impor t whe n it is profoundl y conceive d and solemnl y undertaken , is presente d in the traditiona l legen d of the Grea t Struggl e of the Buddha . Th e youn g princ e Gautam a Sakyamun i set forth secretl y from his father’ s palac e on the princel y steed Kanthaka , passe d miraculousl y throug h the guarde d gate , rode throug h the nigh t attende d by the torche s of fou r time s sixty thousan d divinities , lightl y hurdle d a majesti c rive r eleve n hundre d and twenty-eigh t cubit s wide , and the n wit h a singl e sword-strok e sheare d his ow n roya l locks—whereupo n the remainin g hair , two finger-breadth s in length , curle d to the righ t and lay clos e to his head . Assumin g the garment s of a monk , he move d as a begga r throug h the world , and durin g thes e year s of apparentl y aimles s wanderin g acquire d an d transcende d the eigh t stage s of meditation . He retire d to a hermitage , ben t his power s six mor e year s to the grea t struggle , carrie d austerit y to the uttermost , an d collapse d in seemin g death , bu t presentl y recovered . The n he returne d to the les s rigorou s life of the asceti c wanderer .” ( :48)

“A youn g girl name d Sujat a cam e and presente d milk-ric e to him in a golde n bowl , and whe n he tosse d the empt y bow l into a rive r it floate d upstream . Thi s wa s the signa l tha t the momen t of his triump h wa s at hand .” ( :48)

“Whirlwind, rocks, thunder and flame, smoking weapons with keen edges, burning coals, hot ashes, boiling mud, blistering sands and fourfold darkness, the Antagonist hurled against the Savior, but the missiles were all transformed into celestial flowers and ointments by the power of Gautama’s ten perfections.” ( :49)

“separation or departure, will be shown in Part I, Chapter I, in five subsections: (1) “The Call to Adventure,” or the signs of the vocation of the hero; (2) “Refusal of the Call,” or the folly of the flight from the god; (3) “Supernatural Aid,” the unsuspected assistance that comes to one who has undertaken his proper adventure; (4) “The Crossing of the first Threshold”; and (5) “The Belly of the Whale,” or the passage into the realm of night. The stage of the trials and victories of initiation will appear in Chapter II in six subsections: (1) “The Road of Trials,” or the dangerous aspect of the gods; (2) “The Meeting with the Goddess” (Magna Mater), or the bliss of infancy regained; (3) “Woman as the Temptress,” the realization and agony of Oedipus; (4) “Atonement with the Father”; (5) “Apotheosis”; and (6) “The Ultimate Boon.”” ( :51)

“Frequently he is honored by his society, frequently unrecognized or disdained. He and/or the world in which he finds himself suffers from a symbolical deficiency.” ( :51)

“Popular tales represent the heroic action as physical; the higher religions show the deed to be moral; nevertheless, there will be found astonishingly little variation in the morphology of the adventure, the character roles involved, the victories gained.” ( :51)

“Hence, the traditional importance of the mathematical problem of the quadrature of the circle: it contains the secret of the transformation of heavenly into earthly forms.” ( :53)

“Because, finally, the All is everywhere, and anywhere may become the seat of power. Any blade of grass may assume, in myth, the figure of the savior and conduct the questing wanderer into the sanctum sanctorum of his own heart.” ( :54)

“”To God all things are fair and good and right,” declares Heraclitus; “but men hold some things 34 wrong and some right.”” ( :54)

“The difficult point is made vivid in an anecdote from Yorubaland (West Africa), which is told of the trickster-divinity Edshu. One day, this odd god came walking along a path between two fields. “He beheld in either field a farmer at work and proposed to play the two a turn. He donned a hat that was on the one side” ( :54)

“red but on the other white, green before and black behind [these being the colors of the four World Directions: i.e., Edshu was a personification of the Center, the axis mundi, or the World Navel]; so that when the two friendly farmers had gone home to their village and the one had said to the other, ‘Did yon see that old fellow go by today in the white hat?’ the other replied, ‘Why, the hat was red.’ To which the first retorted, ‘It was not; it was white.” ‘But it was red,’ insisted the friend, ‘I saw it with my own two eyes.’ ‘Well, you must be blind,’ declared the first. ‘You must be drunk,’ rejoined the other. And so the argument developed and the two came to blows. When they began to knife each other, they were brought by neighbors before the headman for judgment. Edshu was among the crowd at the trial, and when the headman sat at a loss to know where justice lay, the old trickster revealed himself, made known his prank, and showed the hat. ‘The two could not help but quarrel,’ he said. ‘I wanted it 1″ that way. Spreading strife is my greatest joy.” ( :55)

PART ONE
The Adventure of the Hero

“”As soon as the frog had obtained her promise, he ducked his head and sank, and after a little while came swimming up again; he had the ball in his mouth, and tossed it on the grass. The princess was elated when she saw her pretty toy. She picked it up and scampered away. ‘Wait, wait,’ called the frog, ‘take me 1 along; I can’t run like you. But what good did it do, though he croaked after her as loudly as he could”? She paid not the slightest heed, but hurried home, and soon had completely forgotten the poor frog—who must have hopped back again into his 1 spring.” This is an example of one of the ways in which the adventure can begin.” ( :57)

“that the disappearance of the ball is the first sign of something coming for the princess, the frog is the second, and the unconsidered promise is the third.” ( :57)

“As a preliminary manifestation of the powers that are breaking into play, the frog, coming up as it were by miracle, can be termed the “herald”; the crisis of his appearance is the “call to adventure.”” ( :57)

“This first stage of the mythological journey—which we have designated the “call to adventure” —signifies that destiny has summoned the hero and transferred his spiritual center of gravity from within the pale of his society to a zone unknown.” ( :60)

“dull case of the call unanswered; for it is always possible to turn the ear to other interests.” ( :61)

“Walled in boredom, hard work, or “culture,” the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved.” ( :61)

“Not all who hesitate are lost. The psyche has many secrets in reserve. And these are not disclosed unless required.” ( :63)

“Willed introversion, in fact, is one of the classic implements of creative genius and can be employed as a deliberate device.” ( :63)

“It cannot be described, quite, as an answer to any specific call. Rather, it is a deliberate, terrific refusal to respond to anything but the deepest, highest, richest answer to the as yet unknown demand of some waiting void within: a kind of total strike, or rejection of the offered terms of life, as a result of which some power of transformation carries the problem to a plane of new magnitudes, where it is suddenly and finally resolved.” ( :63)

“Princess Budur. The young and handsome prince, the only son of King Shahriman of Persia, persistently refused the repeated suggestions, requests, demands, and finally injunctions, of his father, that he should do the normal thing and take to himself a wife. The first time the subject was broached to him, the lad responded: “O my father, know that I have no lust to marry nor doth my soul incline to women; for that concerning their craft and perfidy I have read many books and heard much talk, even as saith the poet:” ( :64)

“”O king, wait another year and, if after that thou be minded to speak to him on the matter of marriage, speak not to him privily, but address him on a day of state, when all the emirs and wazirs are present with the whole of the army standing before thee. And when all are in crowd then send for thy son, Kamar al-Zaman, and summon him; and, when he cometh, broach to him the matter of marriage before the wazirs and grandees and officers of” ( :64)

“state and captains; for he will surely be bashful and daunted by 1″ their presence and will not dare to oppose thy will.” ( :64)

“The king was confounded and ashamed, since this befell in the presence of his grandees and soldier-officers assembled on a high festival and state occasion; but presently the majesty of kingship took him, and he cried out at his son and made him tremble.” ( :64)

“”O my father, if thou name matrimony to me once more, I will go into my chamber and take a sword and, fixing its hilt on the ground, will set its point to my waist; then will I press upon it, till it come forth from my back, and so slay myself?’ Now when the king heard these words, the light became darkness in his sight and his heart burned for her as with a flame of fire, because he feared lest she should kill herself; and he was filled with perplexity concerning her affair and the kings her suitors. So he said to her: “If thou be determined not to marry and there be no help for it: abstain from going and coming in and out.” Then he placed her in a house and shut her up in a chamber, appointing ten old women as duennas to guard her, and forbade her to go forth to the Seven Palaces.” ( :65)

“For those who have not refused the call, the first encounter of the hero-journey is with a protective figure (often a little old crone or old man) who provides the adventurer with amulets against the dragon forces he is about to pass.” ( :65)

“The thread of Ariadne brought Theseus safely through the adventure of the labyrinth.” ( :66)

“This is the guiding power that runs through the work of Dante in the female figures of Beatrice and the Virgin, and appears in Goethe’s Faust successively as Gretchen, Helen of Troy, and the Virgin.” ( :66)

“”I feel myself,” said Napoleon at the opening of his Russian campaign, “driven towards an end that I do not know. As soon as I shall have reached it, as soon as I shall become unnecessary, an atom will suffice to shatter me. Till then, not all 1 the forces of mankind can do anything against me.” ( :67)

“During Hellenistic times an nmalgamatton of Hermes and 1 both was effected in the figure of Hermes Trismegistus, “Hermes Thrice Greatest,” who Was regarded as the patron and teacher of all the arts, and especially of alchemy. The “hermetically” scaled retort, in which were placed the mystical metals, was regarded as a realm apart—a special region of heightened forces comparable to the mythological realm; and therein the metals underwent strange metamorphoses and transmutations, symbolical of the transfigurations of the soul under the tutelage of the supernatural. Hermes was the master of the ancient mysteries of initiation, and represented that coming-down of divine wisdom into the world which is represented also in the incarnations ol divine saviors (see infra, pp. 342-345). (See C. G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, part III, “Religious Ideas in Alchemy.” (Orig. 1936.) For the retort, setpar. 338. For Hermes Trismegistus, see par. 173 and index, s.v.” ( :67)

“Dyedushka Vodyanoy,” ( :70)

“he Arcadian god Pan is the best known Classical example of this dangerous presence dwelling just beyond the protected zone of the village boundary. Sylvanus and Faunus were his Latin counterparts.*’ He was the” ( :71)

“Prince Five-weapons answered without fear, but with great confidence in the arts and crafts that he had learned. “Ogre,” said he, “I knew what I was about when I entered this forest. You would do well to be careful about attacking me; for with an arrow steeped in poison will I pierce your flesh and fell you on 11 the spot!” ( :73)

“He struck him with his right foot. That also stuck. He struck him with his left foot That also stuck. Thought he: “I will beat you with my head and pound you into powder and dust!” He struck him with his head. That also stuck 0 right to the ogre’s hair.'” ( :74)

“But for all that, he was unafraid, undaunted. As for the ogre, he thought: “This is some lion of a man, some man of noble birth—no mere man! For although he has been caught by an ogre like me, he appears neither to tremble nor to quake! In all the time I have harried this road, I have never seen a single man to match him! Why, pray, is he not afraid”?” Not daring to eat him, he asked: “Youth, why are you not afraid? Why are you not terrified with the fear of death?”” ( :74)

“What’s more, I have in my belly a thunderbolt for weapon. If you eat me, you will not be able to digest that weapon. It will tear your insides into tatters and fragments and will kill you. In that case we’ll both perish. That’s why I’m not afraid!”” ( :74)

“Indeed, this young hero was none other than the Future Buddha, in an earlier” ( :74)

“As a symbol of the world to which the five senses glue us, and which cannot be pressed aside by the actions of the physical organs, Sticky-hair was subdued only when the Future Buddha, no longer protected by the five weapons of his momentary name and physical character, resorted to the unnamed, invisible sixth:” ( :74)

“divine thunderbolt of the knowledge of the transcendent principle, which is beyond the phenomenal realm of names and forms.” ( :75)

“As the rising smoke of an offering through the sun door, so goes the hero, released from ego, through the walls of the world—leaving ego stuck to Sticky-hair and passing on.” ( :75)

“The Irish hero, finn MacCool, was swallowed by a monster of indefinite form, of the type known to the Celtic world as a peist. The little German girl, Red Ridinghood, was swallowed by a wolf. The Polynesian favorite, Maui, was swallowed by his great-great-grandmother, Hine-nui-te-po. And the whole Greek pantheon, with the sole exception of Zeus, was swallowed by its father, Kronos.” ( :79)

“guardians to ward away all incapable of encountering the higher silences within. They are preliminary embodiments of the dangerous aspect of the presence, corresponding to the mythological ogres that bound the conventional world, or to the two rows of teeth of the whale.” ( :80)

“”No creature,” writes Ananda Coomaraswamy, “can attain a 39 higher grade of nature without ceasing to exist.” Indeed, the physical body of the hero may be actually slain, dismembered, and scattered over the land or sea—as in the Egyptian myth of the savior Osiris: he was thrown into a sarcophagus and com- 0 mitted to the Nile by his brother Set,” and when he returned from the dead his brother slew him again, tore the body into fourteen pieces, and scattered these over the land. The Twin Heroes of the Navaho had to pass not only the clashing rocks, but also the reeds that cut the traveler to pieces, the cane cactuses that tear him to pieces, and the boiling sands that overwhelm him. The hero whose attachment to ego is already annihilate passes back and forth across the horizons” ( :80)

“And therein lies his power to save; for his passing and returning demonstrate that through all the contraries of phenomenality the Uncreate-Imperishable remains, and there is nothing to fear.” ( :81)

“”In every primitive tribe,” writes Dr. Geza Roheim, “we find the medicine man in the center of society and it is easy to show that the medicine man is either a neurotic or a psychotic or at least that his art is based on the same mechanisms as a neurosis or a psychosis.” ( :84)

“”They are the leaders in this infantile game and the lightning conductors of common anxiety. They fight the demons so that others can hunt the prey and in general 7 fight reality.”” ( :84)

“Sumerian myth of the goddess Inanna’s descent to the nether world.” ( :86)

“Naked, she was brought before the throne. She bowed low. The seven judges of the nether world, the Anunnaki, sat before the throne of Ereshkigal, and they fastened their eyes upon Inannai— the eyes of death.” ( :87)

“The hero, whether god or goddess, man or woman, the figure in a myth or the dreamer of a dream, discovers and assimilates his opposite (his own unsuspected self) either by swallowing it or by being swallowed.” ( :87)

“As he progresses in the slow initiation which is life, the form of the goddess undergoes for him a series of transfigurations: she can never be greater than himself, though she can always promise more than he is yet capable of comprehending.” ( :91)

“Atonement (at-one-ment) consists in no more than the abandonment of that self-generated double monster—the 4′ dragon thought to be God (superego) and the dragon thought to be Sin (repressed id).” ( :98)

“And just as, formerly, the mother represented the “good” and “evil,” so now does he, but with this complication —that there is a new element of rivalry in the picture: the son against the father for the mastery of the universe, and the daughter against the mother to be the mastered world.” ( :100)

“He is seen by subtle seers with superior, 7a subtle intellect.” “Split the stick,” runs a Gnostic aphorism, “and there is Jesus.”” ( :105)

“Word Made Flesh as androgynous-which was indeed the state of Adam as he was created, before the female aspect, Eve, was removed into another form. And among the Greeks, not only Hermaphrodite (the child of Hermes wtl and Aphrodite), but Eros too, the divinity of love {the first of 89 the gods, according to Plato), were in sex both female and male.” ( :108)

“And in Australia, about a year following the ordeal of the circumcision, the candidate for full manhood undergoes a second ritual operation-that of subincision (a slitting open of the underside of the penis, to form a permanent cleft into the urethra). The opening is termed the “penis womb.” It is a symbolical male vagina. The hero has become, by virtue of the ceremonial, more 98 than man.” ( :109)

“supreme Lord: “I say unto you, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you. Bless them that curse you, and” ( :110)

“pray for them which despitefully use you. And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloke forbid not to take thy coat also. Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again.” ( :110)

“World Redeemer brings and which so many have been glad to hear, zealous to preach, but reluctant, apparently, to demonstrate, is that God is love, that He can be, and is to be, loved, and that all without exception are his children.” ( :111)

“St. Augustine’s declaration of the holy war of the Civitas Dei against the Civitas Diaboli,” ( :111)

“universal communion: that of the Buddha, where 112 the primary word still is peace-peace to ail beings.” ( :111)

“That father was himself the 11′ womb, the mother, of a second birth.” ( :112)

“the ogre for whom all the precious forms and beings are only the courses of a feast; but then, miraculously reborn, we are more than we were. If the God is a tribal, racial, national, or sectarian archetype, we are the warriors of his cause; but if he is a lord of the universe itself, we then go forth as knowers to whom all men are brothers.” ( :112)

“Buddhi st Eightfold Path: Right Belief, Right Intentions, Right Speech, Right Actions, Right Livelihood, Right Endeavoring, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration.” ( :114)

“”The plants, rocks, fire, water, all are alive. They watch us and see our needs. They see when we have nothing to protect us,” declared an old Apache storyteller, 1′ 130 “and it is then that they reveal themselves and speak to us. This is what the Buddhist calls “the sermon of the inanimate.”” ( :116)

“The third wonder of the Bodhisattva myth is that the first wonder (namely, the bisexual form) is symbolical of the second (the identity of eternity and time).” ( :116)

“This is a supreme statement of the great paradox by which the wall of the pairs of opposites is shattered and the candidate admitted to the vision of the God, who when he created man in his own image created him male and female.” ( :117)

“Precisely the same bell is rung in the Christian Mass at the moment when God, through the power of the words of the consecration, descends into the bread and wine. And the Christian reading of the meaning also is the same: Et Verbum carofactum lM 155 est, i.e., “The Jewel is in the Lotus”: Om manipadme hum.” ( :117)

“”The heavenly is like Tao. Tao is the Eternal. The decay of 166 the body is not to be feared.” The Japanese have a proverb: “The gods only laugh when men pray to them for wealth.”” ( :125)

“The Greeks tell of King Midas, who had the luck to win from Bacchus the offer of whatsoever boon he might desire. He asked that everything he touched should be turned to gold. When he went his way, he plucked, experimentally, the twig of” ( :125)

“And when his little daughter, whom he loved beyond anything on earth, came to console him in his misery, she became, the moment he embraced her, a pretty golden statue.” ( :126)

“W H E N the hero-quest has been accomplished, through penetration to the source, or through the grace of some male or female, human or animal, personification, the adventurer still must return with his life-transmuting trophy.” ( :127)

“But the responsibility has been frequently refused. Even the Buddha, after his triumph, doubted whether the message of realization could be communicated, and saints are reported to have passed away while in the supernal ecstasy. Numerous indeed are the heroes fabled to have taken up residence forever in the blessed isle of the unaging Goddess of Immortal Being.” ( :127)

“Kingly power and earthly possession, riches and might, friends and sons, wife and followers, everything that lures the senses: I wanted them all, because I believed that these would bring me beatitude. But the moment anything was mine it changed its nature, and became as a burning fire.” ( :132)

“When Muchukunda stepped from his cave, he saw that men, since his departure, had become reduced in stature. He was as a giant among them. And so he departed from them again, retreated to the highest mountains, and there dedicated himself to the” ( :132)

“ascetic practices that should finally release him from his last at- 2 tachment to the forms of being.” ( :133)

“ascetic practices that should finally release him from his last at- 2 tachment to the forms of being. Muchukunda, in other words, instead of returning, decided to retreat one degree still further from the world. And who shall say that his decision was altogether without reason?” ( :133)

“In the Japanese “Records of Ancient Matters” appears another harrowing tale, but of very different import: that of the descent to the underworld of the primeval all-father Izanagi,” ( :137)

“”Records of Ancient Matters” —is that of the drawing forth of the beautiful sun-goddess Amaterasu” ( :139)

“The storm-god Susanowo,” ( :139)

“They show in the final sttagcs of the adventure the continued operation of the supernatural assisting force that has been attending the elect through the w/hole course of his ordeal.” ( :142)

“The hero adventures out of the land we know into darkness; there he accomplishes his adventure, or again is simplylost to us, imprisoned, or in danger; and his return is described as a coming back out of that yonder zone.” ( :142)

“Martyrdom is for saints, but the common people have their institutions, and these cannot be left to grow like lilies of the field; Peter keeps drawing his sword, as in the garden, to defend the creator and sustainer of 18 the world.” ( :143)

“How communicate to people who insist on the exclusive evidence of their senses the message of the all-generating void?” ( :143)

“Rip van Winkle is an example of the delicate case of the returning hero. Rip moved into the adventurous realm unconsciously, as we all do every night when we go to sleep. In deep sleep, declare the Hindus, the self is unified and blissful; IS therefore deep sleep is called the cognitional state. But though we are refreshed and sustained by these nightly visits to the source-darkness, our lives are not reformed by them; we return, like Rip, with nothing to show for the experience but our whiskers.” ( :144)

“He had descended consciously (awake) into the kingdom of the unconscious (deep sleep) and had incorporated the values of the subliminal experience into his waking personality.” ( :144)

“” ‘Will you bring this horn to me?’ asked Oisin of the herdsman. “‘I will not,’ said the herdsman; ‘for neither I nor many more like me could raise it from the ground.’ “With that Oisin moved near the horn, and reaching down took it in his hand; but so eager was he to blow it, that he forgot everything, and slipped in reaching till one foot touched the earth. In an instant the steed was gone, and Oisin lay on the ground a blind old man.”” ( :145)

“The equating of a single year in Paradise to one hundred of earthly existence is a motif well known to myth. The full round of one hundred signifies totality. Similarly, the three hundred and sixty degrees of the circle signify totality; accordingly the Hindu Puranas represent one year of the gods as equal to three hundred and sixty of men.” ( :145)

“Montezuma, Emperor of Mexico, never set foot on the ground; he was always carried on the shoulders of noblemen, and if he lighted anywhere they laid a rich tapestry for him to walk upon.” ( :146)

“preserve the charge from running to waste, the sacred or tabooed personage must be carefully prevented from touching the ground; in electrical language he must be insulated, if he is not to be emptied of the precious substance or fluid with which he, as a vial, is filled to the brim.” ( :146)

“Kamar al-Zaman attempted to wake her, but Dahnash had deepened her slumber. The youth shook her. “O my beloved, awake and look at me,” he said. But she never stirred. Kamar alZaman imagined Budur to be the woman whom his father wished him to marry, and he was filled with eagerness. But he feared that his sire might be hiding somewhere in the room, watching, so he restrained himself, and contented himself with taking the seal-ring from her little finger and slipping it on his own. The Ifrits then returned him to his sleep.” ( :147)

“”Lust was sore upon her, for that the desire of women is fiercer than the desire of men, and she was ashamed of her own shamelessness.” ( :147)

“Dahnash therefore lost the argument. Budur was returned to China.” ( :147)

najtuznija ljubavna prica ikad – jebo Shakespeara šta je ovo – Kamar i Budur – pričai po (note on p.148)

“respective households, belabored and slew people round about, and went entirely mad. Kamar al-Zaman lay down to languish; his father, the king, sat down at his head, weeping and mourning over him, and never leaving him, night or day. But the Princess Budur had to be manacled; with a chain of iron about her neck, 23 she was made fast to one of her palace windows.” ( :148)

“Rip van Winkle missed; it betokens too a conviction of the waking mind that the reality of the deep is not belied by that of common day. This is the sign of the hero’s requirement, now, to knit together his two worlds.” ( :148)

“Here is the whole myth in a moment: Jesus the guide, the way, the vision, and the companion of the return. The disciples are his initiates, not themselves masters of the mystery, yet introduced to the full experience of the paradox of the two worlds 28 in one. Peter was so frightened he babbled.” ( :148)

“We may doubt whether such a scene ever actually took place. But that would not help us any; for we are concerned, at present, with problems of symbolism, not of historicityWe do not particularly care whether Rip van Winkle, Kamar al-Zaman, or Jesus Christ ever actually lived. Their stories are what concern us: and these stories are so widely distributed over the world—attached to various heroes in various lands—that the question of whether this or that local carrier of the universal theme may or may not have been a historical, living man can be of only secondary moment.” ( :149)

“him; and this in terms befitting his human understanding, that is to say, in terms of an anthropomorphic vision: the Cosmic Man.” ( :151)

“Xo matter how attractive or impressive they may seem, they remain but convenient means, accommodated to the understanding. Hence the personality or personalities of God—whether represented in trinitarian, dualistic, or Unitarian terms, in polytheistic, monotheistic, or henotheistic terms, pictorially or verbally, as documented fact or as apocalyptic vision—no one should attempt to read or interpret as the final thing” ( :151)

“And in the Kena Upanishad, in the same spirit: 34 “To know is not to know; not to know is to know.”” ( :151)

Bam! Ovo je ono što se dogodilo u Makedoniji na evening plenarni day 2. Kada su ljudi otpustili sve što se njima može dogoditi za veći ideal, čitava prostorija je osjetila to i počela disati kao jedno. Ustani za veću svrhu, ne za sebe. Osjetilo se da je Sara ustala ne radi sebe ili svoje neke slave, već radi ideala pravde kojeg je imala. Ne postoji veći primjer žrtvovanja sebe radi većeg dobra. Kako sam povlašten što sam to uspio doživjeti da nisam ni svjestan (note on p.152)

“A corresponding formulation by Jesus makes the point more succinctly: 36 “Whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it.”” ( :152)

“The individual, through prolonged psychological disciplines, gives up completely all attachment to his personal limitations, idiosyncrasies, hopes and fears, no longer resists the self-annihilation that is prerequisite to rebirth in the realization of truth, and so becomes ripe, at last, for the great at-one-ment.” ( :152)

“Weapons cut It not; fire burns It not; water wets It not; the wind does not wither It. This Self cannot be cut nor burnt nor wetted nor withered. Eternal, all-pervading, unchanging, immovable, the Self is the same 38 for ever.”” ( :152)

“226” ( :155)

“The hero may defeat or conciliate this power and go alive into the kingdom of the dark (brother-battle, dragonbattle; offering, charm), or be slain by the opponent and descend in death (dismemberment, crucifixion).” ( :155)

“union with the goddess-mother of the world (sacred marriage), his recognition by the father-creator (father atonement), his own divinization (apotheosis), or again —if the powers have remained unfriendly to him—his theft of the boon he came to gain (bride-theft, fire-theft); intrinsically it is an expansion of consciousness and therewith of being (illumination, transfiguration, freedom).” ( :156)

“for when a civilization has passed from a mythological to a secular point of view, the older images are no longer felt or quite approved.” ( :157)

“man be born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter into the 1 kingdom of God.”‘ The popular interpretation of baptism is that it “washes away original sin,” with emphasis rather on the cleansing than on the rebirth idea. This is a secondary interpretation. Or if the traditional birth image is remembered, nothing is said of an antecedent marriage. Mythological symbols, however, have to be followed through all their implications before they open out the full system of correspondences through which they represent, by analogy, the millennial adventure of the soul.” ( :158)

PART II
The Cosmogonic Cycle

“But if we are to grasp the full value of the materials, we must note that myths are not exactly comparable to dream. Their figures originate from the same sources—the unconscious wells of fantasy—and their grammar is the same, but they are not the spontaneous products of sleep.” ( :161)

“all things and beings — are the effects of a ubiquitous power out of which they rise, which supports and fills them during the period of their manifestation, and back into which they must ultimately dissolve. This is the power known to science as energy, to the Melanesians as mana, to the Sioux Indians as ivakonda, the Hindus as sliakti, and the Christians as the power of God.” ( :161)

“The key to the modern systems of psychological interpretation therefore is this: the metaphysical realm = the unconscious. Correspondingly, the key to open the door the other way is the same equation in reverse: the unconscious = the metaphysical realm. “For,” as Jesus states it, “be- 6 hold, the kingdom of God is within you.”” ( :162)

“This is the great theme and formula of the cosmogonic cycle, the mythical image of the world’s coming to manifestation and subsequent return into the nonmanifest condition.” ( :162)

“And so it is that the cosmic symbols are presented in a spirit of thought-bewildering sublime paradox. The kingdom of God is within, yet without, also; God, however, is but a convenient means to wake the sleeping princess, the soul. Life is her sleep, death the awakening. The hero, the waker of his own soul, is himself but the convenient means of his own dissolution. God, the waker of the soul, is therewith his own immediate death.” ( :162)

“According to the Stoic doctrine of the cyclic conflagration, all souls are resolved into the world soul or primal fire.” ( :163)

“And before him, again, were exactly twenty-one others, going all the way back to Rishabhanatha, who existed in an earlier age of the world, when men and women were always born in wedded couples, were two miles tall, and lived for a period of countless years.” ( :163)

“The Jains conceive of time as an endless round. Time is pictured as a wheel with twelve spokes, or ages, classified in two sets of six. The first set is called the “descending” series (avasarpini), and begins with the age of the superlative giantcouples. That paradisiac period endures for ten millions of ten millions” ( :164)

“Our own age, the fifth of the descending series, began in 522 B.C. and will last for twenty-one thousand years. No Jaina savior will be born during this time, and the eternal religion of the Jains will gradually disappear. It is a period of unmitigated and gradually intensifying evil. The tallest human beings are only seven cubits tall, and the longest life span no more than one hundred and twenty-five years. People have only sixteen ribs. They are selfish, unjust, violent, lustful, proud, and avaricious.” ( :164)

“For seven days then it will rain, and seven different kinds of rain will fall; the soil will be refreshed, and the seeds will begin to grow.” ( :164)

“This ever-revolving, twelve-spoked wheel of time of the .Jains is a counterpart of the cycle of four ages of the Hindus: the first age a long period of perfect bliss, beauty, and perfection, lasting 14 4800 divine years; the second of somewhat lesser virtue, lasting 3600 divine years; the third of equally intermingled virtue and vice, lasting 2400 divine years; and the last, our own, of steadily increasing evil, lasting 1200 divine years, or 432,000 years according to human calculation.” ( :165)

“An Egyptian myth reveals the demiurge creating the world 36 by an act of masturbation. A Hindu myth displays him in yogic meditation, with the forms of his inner vision breaking forth from him (to his own astonishment) and standing then 3′ around him as a pantheon of brilliant gods.” ( :171)

“Herein lies the basic paradox of myth: the paradox of the dual focus. Just as at the opening of the cosmogonic cycle it was pos- 11 sible to say “God is not involved, but at the same time “God is creator-preserver-destroyer,” so now at this critical juncture, 11 where the One breaks into the many, destiny “happens, but at the same time “is brought about.”” ( :175)

“The Maoris, for example, from whom we have some of our finest cosmogonies, have the story of an egg dropped by a bird into the primeval sea; it burst, and out came a man, a woman, a boy, a girl, a pig, a dog, and a canoe. All 54 got into the canoe and drifted to New Zealand. This clearly is a burlesque of the cosmic egg. On the other hand, the Kamchatkans declare, apparently in all seriousness, that God inhabited heaven originally, but then descended to earth. When he traveled about on his snowshoes, the new ground yielded under him like thin and pliant ice. The land has been uneven ever since.™ Or again, according to the Central Asiatic Kirghiz, when two early people tending a great ox had been without drink for a very long time and were nearly dead of thirst, the animal got water for them by ripping open the ground with its big horns. That is how the lakes 56 in the country of the Kirghiz were made.” ( :177)

“i t in cotton , place d it betwee n her breasts , wher e she kep t it a numbe r of days , at the end of whic h tim e it was transforme d into a livin g creature : all by orde r of the demon . Th e chil d wa s name d Goranchacho , and he was reare d in the househol d of the head man , his grandfather , unti l he was som e twenty-fou r year s of age. ” The n he proceede d in triumphan t processio n to the cap – ital of the nation , and was celebrate d throughou t the province s 12 as the “Chil d of the Sun/'” ( :185)

“The Chinese chronicles record that when the earth had solidified and the peoples were settling in the riverlands, Fu Hsi, the “Heavenly Emperor” (2953-2838 B.C.), governed among them. He taught his tribes how to fish with nets, to hunt and to rear domestic animals, divided the people into clans, and instituted matrimony. From a supernatural tablet entrusted to him by a horse-shaped scaly monster out of the waters of the river Meng, he deduced the Eight Diagrams, which remain to this day the fundamental symbols of traditional Chinese thought.” ( :188)

“Shen Nung, his successor, the “Earthly Emperor” (2838- 2698 B.C.), was eight feet seven inches tall, with a human body but the head of a bull.” ( :188)

“Huang Ti, the “Yellow Emperor” (2697-2597 B.C.), was the third of the august Three.” ( :188)

“Pope Gregory the Great (A.D. 540?-604) was born of noble twins who at the instigation of the devil had committed incest. His penitent mother set him to sea in a little casket. He was found and fostered by fishermen, and at the age of six was sent to a cloister to be educated as a priest. But he desired the life of a knightly warrior. Entering a boat, he was borne miraculously to the country of his parents, where he won the hand of the queen—who presently proved to be his mother. After discovery of this second incest, Gregory remained seventeen years in penance, chained to a rock in the middle of the sea. The keys to the chains were tossed to the waters, but when at the end of the long period they were discovered in the belly of a fish, this was taken to be a providential sign: the penitent was conducted to 1 Rome, where in due course he was elected Pope.” ( :190)

“In sum: the child of destiny has to face a long period of obscurity. This is a time of extreme danger, impediment, or disgrace. He is thrown inward to his own depths or outward to the unknown; either way, what he touches is a darkness unexplored.” ( :192)

“The herding folk were accustomed to pay worship to the god Indra, the Hindu counterpart of Zeus, king of heaven and lord of rain.” ( :193)

“J ust before he got to the marsh there was a rock, and he hit himself against it and broke, and a boy jumped up. He was very glad his skin had been broken and that he was a boy, a big boy.” ( :194)

“From the first the son returns as emissary, but from the second, with the knowledge that “I and the father are” ( :207)

“one.” Heroes of this second, highest illumination are the world redeemers, the so-called incarnations, in the highest sense. Their myths open out to cosmic proportions. Their words carry an authority beyond anything pronounced by the heroes of the scepter and the book.” ( :207)

“To imagine oneself as possessing anything is to be mistaken; nobody is father, mother, or son. There is only the 31 continuous round of birth and death.'”” ( :208)

“ust as in the history of the universe, so also in that of nations: emanation leads to dissolution, youth to age, birth to death, form-creative vitality to the dead weight of inertia.” ( :208)

“Life surges, precipitating forms, and then ebbs, leaving jetsam behind. The golden age, the reign of the world emperor, alternates, in the pulse of every moment of life, with the waste land, the reign of the tyrant. The god who is the creator becomes the destroyer in the end.” ( :208)

“The hero of yesterday becomes the tyrant of tomorrow, unless he crucifies himself today.” ( :209)

“words of Jesus: “I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a man’s foes shall be they of his own household. He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of 33 me.”” ( :209)

“13 Matthew, 10:34-37.” ( :209)

“Once it is glimpsed, the entire spectacle buckles: the son slays the father, but the son and the father are one. The enigmatical figures dissolve back into the primal chaos. This is the wisdom of the end (and rebeginning) of the world.” ( :209)

“Thomas Aquinas, as the result of a mystical experience while celebrating mass in Naples, put his pen and ink on the shelf and left the last chapters of his Summa Theologica to be completed by another hand. “My writing days,” he stated, “are over; for such things have been revealed to me that all 1 have written and taught” ( :209)

“seems of but small account to me, wherefore I hope in my God, that, even as the end has come to my teaching, so it may soon come in my life.” Shortly thereafter, in his forty-ninth year, he died.” ( :210)

“1 sensation. “Thereupon The Blessed One rising from the cessation of his perception and sensation, entered the realm of neither perception nor yet non-perception; and rising from the realm of neither perception or yet non-perception, he entered the realm of nothingness; and rising from the realm of nothingness, he entered the realm of infinity of consciousness; and rising from the realm of infinity of consciousness, he entered the realm of the infinity of space; and rising from the realm of the infinity of space, he entered the fourth trance; and rising from the fourth trance, he entered the third trance; and rising from the third trance, he entered the second trance; and rising from the second trance, he entered the first trance; and rising from the first trance, he entered the second trance; and rising from the second trance, he entered the third trance; and rising from the third trance, he entered the fourth trance; and rising from the fourth trance, immediately The 1′ 5 Blessed One passed into Nirvana.”” ( :214)

“In the land of the giants, Jotunheim, a fair, red rooster shall crow;” ( :219)

“”Then if any man shall say unto you: Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.” ( :220)

EPILOGUE
Myth and Society

“Mythology has been interpreted by the modern intellect as a primitive, fumbling effort to explain the world of nature (Frazer); as a production of poetical fantasy from prehistoric times, misunderstood by succeeding ages (Muller); as a” ( :222)

“instruction, to shape the individual to his group (Durkheim);” ( :223)

“Mythology is all of these.” ( :223)

“Or another example: The hogan, or mud hut, of the Navahos of New Mexico and Arizona, is constructed on the plan of the Navaho image of the cosmos. The entrance faces east. The eight sides represent the four directions and the points between. Every beam and joist corresponds to an element in the great hogan of the all-embracing earth and sky. And since the soul of man itself is regarded as identical in form with the universe, the mud hut is a representation of the basic harmony of man and world, and a reminder of the hidden life-way of perfection.” ( :224)

“From the standpoint of the way of duty, anyone in exile from the community is a nothing. From the other point of view, however, this exile is the first step of the quest.” ( :224)

“denote only the accidents of geography, birth-date, and income. What is the core of us? What is the basic character of our being”?” ( :224)

“The preliminary meditations of the aspirant detach his mind and sentiments from the accidents of life and drive him to the core.” ( :224)

“No man can return from such exercises and take very seriously himself as Mr. So-an-so of Such-and-such a township, U.S.A. — Society and duties drop away. Mr, So-and-so, having discovered himself big with man, becomes indrawn and aloof.” ( :224)

“I 1″ am not my feeling; not my mind; not my power of intuition. By such meditations he is driven to his own profundity and breaks through, at last, to unfathomable realizations. No man can return from such exercises and take very seriously himself as Mr. So-an-so of Such-and-such a township, U.S.A. — Society and duties drop away. Mr, So-and-so, having discovered himself big with man, becomes indrawn and aloof.” ( :224)

“The aim is not to see, but to realize that one is, that essence; then one is free to wander as that essence in the world.” ( :224)

“Hence separateness, withdrawal, is no longer necessary. Wherever the hero may wander, whatever he may do, he is ever in the presence of his own essence—for he has the perfected eye to see. There is no separateness. Thus, just as the way of social participation may lead in the end to a realization of the All in the individual, so that of exile brings the hero to the Self in all.” ( :224)

“he problem of mankind today, therefore, is precisely the opposite to that of men in the comparatively stable periods of those great co-ordinating mythologies which now are known as lies.” ( :225)

“anticult—namely the patriots whose ubiquitous photographs, draped with flags, serve as official icons—are precisely the local threshold guardians (our demon Sticky-hair) whom it is the first problem of the hero to surpass.” ( :225)

“And this is not a work that consciousness itself can achieve. Consciousness can no more invent, or even predict, an effective symbol than foretell or control tonight’s dream. The whole thing is being worked out on another level, through what is bound to be a long and very frightening process, not only in the depths of every living psyche in the modern world, but also on those titanic battlefields into which the whole planet has lately been converted. We are watching the terrible clash of the Symplegades, through which the soul must pass—identified with neither side-” ( :226)

“”Truth is one,” we read in the Vedas; “the sages call it by many names.”” ( :226)

“The way to become human is to learn to recognize the lineaments of God in all of the wonderful modulations of the face of man.” ( :226)

“An unconscious identification took place, and this was finally rendered conscious in the half-human, half-animal, figures of the mythological totem-ancestors. The animals became the tutors of humanity. Through acts of literal imitation—such as today appear only on the children’s playground (or in the madhouse) —an effective annihilation of the human ego was accomplished and society achieved a cohesive organization.” ( :226)

“Man is that alien presence with whom the forces of egoism must come to terms, through whom the ego is to be crucified and resurrected, and in whose image society is to be reformed. Man, understood however” ( :226)

“not as “I ” but as “Thou”: for the ideals and temporal institutions of no tribe, race, continent, social class, or century, can be the measure of the inexhaustible and multifariously wonderful divine existence that is the life in all of us.” ( :227)

“”Live, “Nietzsche says, “as though the day were here. ” It is not society that is to guide and save the creative hero, but precisely the reverse. And so every one of us shares the supreme ordeal —carries the cross of the redeemer—not in the bright moment s of his tribe’ s great victories, but in the silences of his personal despair .” ( :227)


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